These gemstones include variety of minerals such as peridot, aquamarine, topaz, ruby and emerald, making Pakistan a significant country in the market of gemstones. Hindukush, Himalaya, and Karakorum are home to most of the gemstones and minerals found in Pakistan. Pakistan used to have a dedicated department called 'Gemstones Corporation of Pakistan' that was established in 1979, it unfortunately was shutdown in 1997. Currently a few of number of private organizations are handling this job.
Till 80s, Karachi used to be the biggest market of facet and rough cut gems, later the Quetta and Peshawar became the hub of this market. Recently, trend of Gem exhibition has been seen and in 2012, in an exhibition held in Islamabad, around 200 companies showcased their gemstones.